SaltStack之return与job管理

1. SaltStack组件之return

return组件可以理解为SaltStack系统对执行Minion返回后的数据进行存储或者返回给其他程序,它支持多种存储方式,比如用MySQL、MongoDB、Redis、Memcache等,通过return我们可以对SaltStack的每次操作进行记录,对以后日志审计提供了数据来源。目前官方已经支持30种return数据存储与接口,我们可以很方便的配置与使用它。当然也支持自己定义的return,自定义的return需由python来编写。在选择和配置好要使用的return后,只需在salt命令后面指定return即可。

//查看所有return列表
[root@master ~]# salt '*' sys.list_returners
192.168.69.202:
    - carbon
    - couchdb
    - elasticsearch
    - etcd
    - highstate
    - hipchat
    - local
    - local_cache
    - mattermost
    - multi_returner
    - pushover
    - rawfile_json
    - slack
    - smtp
    - splunk
    - sqlite3
    - syslog
    - telegram

1.1 return流程

return是在Master端触发任务,然后Minion接受处理任务后直接与return存储服务器建立连接,然后把数据return存到存储服务器。关于这点一定要注意,因为此过程都是Minion端操作存储服务器,所以要确保Minion端的配置跟依赖包是正确的,这意味着我们将必须在每个Minion上安装指定的return方式依赖包,假如使用Mysql作为return存储方式,那么我们将在每台Minion上安装python-mysql模块。

1.2 使用mysql作为return存储方式

在所有minion上安装Mysql-python模块

[root@master ~]# salt '*' pkg.install MySQL-python
192.168.69.202:
    ----------
    MySQL-python:
        ----------
        new:
            1.2.5-1.el7
        old:
[root@master ~]# salt '*' cmd.run 'rpm -qa|grep MySQL-python'
192.168.69.202:
    MySQL-python-1.2.5-1.el7.x86_64

部署一台mysql服务器用作存储服务器,此处就直接在192.168.69.202这台主机上部署

//部署mysql
[root@minion ~]# yum -y install mariadb-server
[root@minion ~]# systemctl start mariadb
[root@minion ~]# systemctl enable mariadb
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/mariadb.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/mariadb.service.
[root@minion ~]# ss -antl
State      Recv-Q Send-Q          Local Address:Port                         Peer Address:Port
LISTEN     0      128                         *:22                                      *:*
LISTEN     0      100                 127.0.0.1:25                                      *:*
LISTEN     0      50                          *:3306                                    *:*
LISTEN     0      128                        :::22                                     :::*
LISTEN     0      100                       ::1:25                                     :::*

//创建数据库和表结构
[root@minion ~]# mysql
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE DATABASE  `salt`
    ->   DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8
    ->   DEFAULT COLLATE utf8_general_ci;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]>
MariaDB [(none)]> USE `salt`;
Database changed
MariaDB [salt]>
MariaDB [salt]> --
MariaDB [salt]> -- Table structure for table `jids`
MariaDB [salt]> --
MariaDB [salt]>
MariaDB [salt]> DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `jids`;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [salt]> CREATE TABLE `jids` (
    ->   `jid` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
    ->   `load` mediumtext NOT NULL,
    ->   UNIQUE KEY `jid` (`jid`)
    -> ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)

MariaDB [salt]> CREATE INDEX jid ON jids(jid) USING BTREE;
ERROR 1061 (42000): Duplicate key name 'jid'
MariaDB [salt]>
MariaDB [salt]> drop database salt;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]>
MariaDB [(none)]> CREATE DATABASE  `salt`
    ->   DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8
    ->   DEFAULT COLLATE utf8_general_ci;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]>
MariaDB [(none)]> USE `salt`;
 NOT NULL,
`alter_time` TIMESTAMP DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
`master_id` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
KEY `tag` (`tag`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;Database changed
MariaDB [salt]>
MariaDB [salt]> --
MariaDB [salt]> -- Table structure for table `jids`
MariaDB [salt]> --
MariaDB [salt]>
MariaDB [salt]> DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `jids`;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [salt]> CREATE TABLE `jids` (
    ->   `jid` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
    ->   `load` mediumtext NOT NULL,
    ->   UNIQUE KEY `jid` (`jid`)
    -> ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

MariaDB [salt]> CREATE INDEX jid ON jids(jid) USING BTREE;
ERROR 1061 (42000): Duplicate key name 'jid'
MariaDB [salt]>
MariaDB [salt]> --
MariaDB [salt]> -- Table structure for table `salt_returns`
MariaDB [salt]> --
MariaDB [salt]>
MariaDB [salt]> DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `salt_returns`;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [salt]> CREATE TABLE `salt_returns` (
    ->   `fun` varchar(50) NOT NULL,
    ->   `jid` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
    ->   `return` mediumtext NOT NULL,
    ->   `id` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
    ->   `success` varchar(10) NOT NULL,
    ->   `full_ret` mediumtext NOT NULL,
    ->   `alter_time` TIMESTAMP DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
    ->   KEY `id` (`id`),
    ->   KEY `jid` (`jid`),
    ->   KEY `fun` (`fun`)
    -> ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)

MariaDB [salt]>
MariaDB [salt]> --
MariaDB [salt]> -- Table structure for table `salt_events`
MariaDB [salt]> --
MariaDB [salt]>
MariaDB [salt]> DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `salt_events`;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [salt]> CREATE TABLE `salt_events` (
    -> `id` BIGINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    -> `tag` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
    -> `data` mediumtext NOT NULL,
    -> `alter_time` TIMESTAMP DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
    -> `master_id` varchar(255) NOT NULL,
    -> PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
    -> KEY `tag` (`tag`)
    -> ) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.06 sec)

MariaDB [salt]> show tables;
+----------------+
| Tables_in_salt |
+----------------+
| jids           |
| salt_events    |
| salt_returns   |
+----------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

//授权访问
MariaDB [salt]> grant all on salt.* to salt@'%' identified by 'salt';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [salt]> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

配置minion

[root@minion ~]# vim /etc/salt/minion
.....此处省略N行
mysql.host: '192.168.69.202'
mysql.user: 'salt'
mysql.pass: 'salt'
mysql.db: 'salt'
mysql.port: 3306

[root@minion ~]# systemctl restart salt-minion

在Master上测试存储到mysql中

[root@master ~]# salt '*' test.ping --return mysql
192.168.69.202:
    True

在数据库中查询

MariaDB [salt]> select * from salt_returns\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       fun: test.ping
       jid: 20190307183744856327
    return: true
        id: 192.168.69.202
   success: 1
  full_ret: {"fun_args": [], "jid": "20190307183744856327", "return": true, "retcode": 0, "success": true, "cmd": "_return", "_stamp": "2019-03-07T10:37:45.457140", "fun": "test.ping", "id": "192.168.69.202"}
alter_time: 2019-03-07 18:37:45

2. job cache

2.1 job cache流程

return时是由Minion直接与存储服务器进行交互,因此需要在每台Minion上安装指定的存储方式的模块,比如python-mysql,那么我们能否直接在Master上就把返回的结果给存储到存储服务器呢?

答案是肯定的,这种方式被称作 job cache 。意思是当Minion将结果返回给Master后,由Master将结果给缓存在本地,然后将缓存的结果给存储到指定的存储服务器,比如存储到mysql中。

开启master端的master_job_cache

[root@master ~]# vim /etc/salt/master
....此处省略N行
master_job_cache: mysql
mysql.host: '192.168.69.202'
mysql.user: 'salt'
mysql.pass: 'salt'
mysql.db: 'salt'
mysql.port: 3306

[root@master ~]# systemctl restart salt-master

在数据库服务器中清空表内容

[root@minion ~]# mysql
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 20
Server version: 5.5.60-MariaDB MariaDB Server

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]> delete from salt.salt_returns;
Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.02 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> select * from salt.salt_returns;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

在master上再次测试能否存储至数据库

[root@master ~]# salt '*' cmd.run 'df -h'
192.168.69.202:
    Filesystem               Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
    /dev/mapper/centos-root   17G  3.9G   14G  23% /
    devtmpfs                 3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /dev
    tmpfs                    3.9G   16K  3.9G   1% /dev/shm
    tmpfs                    3.9G  8.8M  3.9G   1% /run
    tmpfs                    3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
    /dev/sda1               1014M  143M  872M  15% /boot
    tmpfs                    781M     0  781M   0% /run/user/0

在数据库中查询

MariaDB [(none)]> select * from salt.salt_returns\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       fun: cmd.run
       jid: 20190307184928082837
    return: "Filesystem               Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on\n/dev/mapper/centos-root   17G  3.9G   14G  23% /\ndevtmpfs                 3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /dev\ntmpfs                    3.9G   16K  3.9G   1% /dev/shm\ntmpfs                    3.9G  8.8M  3.9G   1% /run\ntmpfs                    3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup\n/dev/sda1               1014M  143M  872M  15% /boot\ntmpfs                    781M     0  781M   0% /run/user/0"
        id: 192.168.69.202
   success: 1
  full_ret: {"fun_args": ["df -h"], "jid": "20190307184928082837", "return": "Filesystem               Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on\n/dev/mapper/centos-root   17G  3.9G   14G  23% /\ndevtmpfs                 3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /dev\ntmpfs                    3.9G   16K  3.9G   1% /dev/shm\ntmpfs                    3.9G  8.8M  3.9G   1% /run\ntmpfs                    3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup\n/dev/sda1               1014M  143M  872M  15% /boot\ntmpfs                    781M     0  781M   0% /run/user/0", "retcode": 0, "success": true, "cmd": "_return", "_stamp": "2019-03-07T10:49:28.333981", "fun": "cmd.run", "id": "192.168.69.202"}
alter_time: 2019-03-07 18:49:28
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

2.2 job管理

获取任务的jid

[root@master ~]# salt '*' cmd.run 'uptime' -v
Executing job with jid 20190307191019053009     //此处就是此命令的jid
-------------------------------------------

192.168.69.202:
     19:10:19 up 40 min,  1 user,  load average: 0.00, 0.03, 0.07

通过jid获取此任务的返回结果

[root@master ~]# salt-run jobs.lookup_jid 20190307191019053009
192.168.69.202:
     19:10:19 up 40 min,  1 user,  load average: 0.00, 0.03, 0.07