KVM虚拟化

1. 虚拟化介绍

虚拟化是云计算的基础。简单的说,虚拟化使得在一台物理的服务器上可以跑多台虚拟机,虚拟机共享物理机的 CPU、内存、IO 硬件资源,但逻辑上虚拟机之间是相互隔离的。

物理机我们一般称为宿主机(Host),宿主机上面的虚拟机称为客户机(Guest)。

那么 Host 是如何将自己的硬件资源虚拟化,并提供给 Guest 使用的呢?
这个主要是通过一个叫做 Hypervisor 的程序实现的。

根据 Hypervisor 的实现方式和所处的位置,虚拟化又分为两种:

  • 全虚拟化
  • 半虚拟化

全虚拟化:
Hypervisor 直接安装在物理机上,多个虚拟机在 Hypervisor 上运行。Hypervisor 实现方式一般是一个特殊定制的 Linux 系统。Xen 和 VMWare 的 ESXi 都属于这个类型

半虚拟化:
物理机上首先安装常规的操作系统,比如 Redhat、Ubuntu 和 Windows。Hypervisor 作为 OS 上的一个程序模块运行,并对管理虚拟机进行管理。KVM、VirtualBox 和 VMWare Workstation 都属于这个类型

理论上讲:
全虚拟化一般对硬件虚拟化功能进行了特别优化,性能上比半虚拟化要高;
半虚拟化因为基于普通的操作系统,会比较灵活,比如支持虚拟机嵌套。嵌套意味着可以在KVM虚拟机中再运行KVM。

2. kvm介绍

kVM 全称是 Kernel-Based Virtual Machine。也就是说 KVM 是基于 Linux 内核实现的。
KVM有一个内核模块叫 kvm.ko,只用于管理虚拟 CPU 和内存。

那 IO 的虚拟化,比如存储和网络设备则是由 Linux 内核与Qemu来实现。

作为一个 Hypervisor,KVM 本身只关注虚拟机调度和内存管理这两个方面。IO 外设的任务交给 Linux 内核和 Qemu。

大家在网上看 KVM 相关文章的时候肯定经常会看到 Libvirt 这个东西。

Libvirt 就是 KVM 的管理工具。

其实,Libvirt 除了能管理 KVM 这种 Hypervisor,还能管理 Xen,VirtualBox 等。

Libvirt 包含 3 个东西:后台 daemon 程序 libvirtd、API 库和命令行工具 virsh

  • libvirtd是服务程序,接收和处理 API 请求;
  • API 库使得其他人可以开发基于 Libvirt 的高级工具,比如 virt-manager,这是个图形化的 KVM 管理工具;
  • virsh 是我们经常要用的 KVM 命令行工具

3. kvm部署

环境说明:

系统类型 IP
RHEL7 192.168.209.11

3.1kvm安装

部署前请确保你的CPU虚拟化功能已开启。分为两种情况:

  • 虚拟机要关机设置CPU虚拟化
  • 物理机要在BIOS里开启CPU虚拟化
//关闭防火墙与SELINUX
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl stop firewalld
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl disable firewalld
Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/firewalld.service.
Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/dbus-org.fedoraproject.FirewallD1.service.
[root@kvm ~]# setenforce 0
[root@kvm ~]# sed -ri 's/^(SELINUX=).*/\1disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config
[root@localhost ~]# reboot

//配置网络源
[root@kvm yum.repos.d]# curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
[root@kvm ~]# sed -i 's/\$releasever/7/g' /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
[root@kvm ~]# sed -i 's/^enabled=.*/enabled=1/g' /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
[root@kvm ~]# yum -y install epel-release vim wget net-tools unzip zip gcc gcc-c++
安装过程略.....

//验证CPU是否支持KVM;如果结果中有vmx(Intel)或svm(AMD)字样,就说明CPU的支持的
[root@kvm ~]# egrep -o 'vmx|svm' /proc/cpuinfo
vmx
vmx
vmx
vmx

//kvm安装
[root@kvm ~]# yum -y install qemu-kvm qemu-kvm-tools qemu-img virt-manager libvirt libvirt-python libvirt-client virt-install virt-viewer bridge-utils libguestfs-tools
安装过程略......


//因为虚拟机中网络,我们一般都是和公司的其他服务器是同一个网段,所以我们需要把 \
KVM服务器的网卡配置成桥接模式。这样的话KVM的虚拟机就可以通过该桥接网卡和公司内部 \
其他服务器处于同一网段
//此处我的网卡是ens33,所以用br0来桥接ens33网卡
[root@kvm ~]# cd /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
[root@kvm network-scripts]# ls
ifcfg-ens33  ifdown-isdn      ifup          ifup-plip      ifup-tunnel
ifcfg-lo     ifdown-post      ifup-aliases  ifup-plusb     
.....此处内容省略
[root@kvm network-scripts]# cp ifcfg-ens33 ifcfg-br0
[root@kvm network-scripts]# cat ifcfg-br0
TYPE=Bridge
DEVICE=br0
NM_CONTROLLED=no
BOOTPROTO=static
NAME=br0
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR=192.168.160.109
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY=192.168.160.1
DNS1=114.114.114.114
DNS2=8.8.8.8
[root@kvm network-scripts]# cat ifcfg-ens33
TYPE=Ethernet
BOOTPROTO=static
NAME=ens33
DEVICE=ens33
ONBOOT=yes
BRIDGE=br0
NM_CONTROLLED=no

//重启网络
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl restart network
[root@kvm ~]# ip a
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN qlen 1
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: ens33: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master br0 state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:0c:29:4c:50:b4 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
3: virbr0: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state DOWN qlen 1000
    link/ether 52:54:00:60:a8:ea brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.122.1/24 brd 192.168.122.255 scope global virbr0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
4: virbr0-nic: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master virbr0 state DOWN qlen 1000
    link/ether 52:54:00:60:a8:ea brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
5: br0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 72:63:57:0a:ca:76 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.160.109/24 brd 192.168.160.255 scope global br0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::7063:57ff:fe0a:ca76/64 scope link
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
       

//启动服务
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl start libvirtd
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl enable libvirtd

//验证安装结果
[root@kvm ~]# lsmod|grep kvm
kvm_intel             170086  0
kvm                   566340  1 kvm_intel
irqbypass              13503  1 kvm

//测试并验证安装结果
[root@kvm ~]# virsh -c qemu:///system list
 Id    Name                           State
----------------------------------------------------
[root@kvm ~]# virsh --version
3.9.0
[root@kvm ~]# virt-install --version
1.4.3
[root@kvm ~]# ln -s /usr/libexec/qemu-kvm /usr/bin/qemu-kvm
[root@kvm ~]# ll /usr/bin/qemu-kvm
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 21 Oct 18 10:57 /usr/bin/qemu-kvm -> /usr/libexec/qemu-kvm
[root@kvm ~]# lsmod |grep kvm
kvm_intel             170086  0
kvm                   566340  1 kvm_intel
irqbypass              13503  1 kvm

//查看网桥信息
[root@kvm ~]# brctl show
bridge name     bridge id               STP enabled     interfaces
br0             8000.000c294c50b4       no              ens33
virbr0          8000.52540060a8ea       yes             virbr0-nic

3.2 kvm web管理界面安装

kvm 的 web 管理界面是由 webvirtmgr 程序提供的。

//安装依赖包
[root@kvm ~]# yum -y install git python-pip libvirt-python libxml2-python python-websockify supervisor nginx python-devel

//升级pip
[root@kvm ~]# pip install --upgrade pip


//从github上下载webvirtmgr代码
[root@kvm ~]# cd /usr/local/src/
[root@kvm src]# git clone git://github.com/retspen/webvirtmgr.git
Cloning into 'webvirtmgr'...
remote: Enumerating objects: 5730, done.
remote: Total 5730 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 5730
Receiving objects: 100% (5730/5730), 3.01 MiB | 39.00 KiB/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (3688/3688), done.

//安装webvirtmgr
[root@kvm src]# cd webvirtmgr/
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# pip install -r requirements.txt
Collecting django==1.5.5 (from -r requirements.txt (line 1))
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/38/49/93511c5d3367b6b21fc2995a0e53399721afc15e4cd6eb57be879ae13ad4/Django-1.5.5.tar.gz (8.1MB)
    57% |██████████████████▌             | 4.7MB 38kB/s eta 0:01:28 
.....此处省略安装步骤

//检查sqlite3是否安装
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# python
Python 2.7.5 (default, May  3 2017, 07:55:04)
[GCC 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-14)] on linux2
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
>>> import sqlite3
>>> exit()

//初始化帐号信息
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# python manage.py syncdb
WARNING:root:No local_settings file found.
Creating tables ...
Creating table auth_permission
Creating table auth_group_permissions
Creating table auth_group
Creating table auth_user_groups
Creating table auth_user_user_permissions
Creating table auth_user
Creating table django_content_type
Creating table django_session
Creating table django_site
Creating table servers_compute
Creating table instance_instance
Creating table create_flavor

You just installed Django's auth system, which means you don't have any superusers defined.
Would you like to create one now? (yes/no): yes     //问你是否创建超级管理员帐号
Username (leave blank to use 'root'):   //指定超级管理员帐号用户名,默认留空为root
Email address: sean1002@126.com     //设置超级管理员邮箱
Password:       //设置超级管理员密码
Password (again):       //再次输入超级管理员密码
Superuser created successfully.
Installing custom SQL ...
Installing indexes ...
Installed 6 object(s) from 1 fixture(s)


//拷贝web网页至指定目录
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# mkdir /var/www
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# cp -r /usr/local/src/webvirtmgr /var/www/
[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# chown -R nginx.nginx /var/www/webvirtmgr/

//生成密钥
[root@kvm ~]# ssh-keygen -t rsa
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_rsa):
Created directory '/root/.ssh'.
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.
Your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
SHA256:CQoZtso2M5Uo39lKvjZboncqakQ69iJt5wnjiJKZNhw root@kvm
The key's randomart image is:
+---[RSA 2048]----+
|  o              |
| ..+.            |
|..+o  .          |
|o+.o + . .       |
|+*. = . S        |
|+E+o .           |
|+*= + .          |
|BO+===.          |
|Oo=**=           |
+----[SHA256]-----+
//由于这里webvirtmgr和kvm服务部署在同一台机器,所以这里本地信任。如果kvm部署在其他机器,那么这个是它的ip
[root@kvm ~]# ssh-copy-id 192.168.160.109
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: "/root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"
The authenticity of host '192.168.160.109 (192.168.160.109)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:UszC1ZeHM7xw/uefVkJoXW6XgRw+Jl51tAXLjFERclE.
ECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:b3:f1:02:b8:01:8e:53:a7:87:09:c0:75:24:4c:ad:88.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
/usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
root@192.168.160.109's password:

Number of key(s) added: 1

Now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh '192.168.160.109'"
and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.
//配置端口转发
[root@kvm ~]# ssh 192.168.160.109 -L localhost:8000:localhost:8000 -L localhost:6080:localhost:60
Last login: Thu Oct 18 08:26:40 2018 from 192.168.160.36
[root@kvm ~]# ss -antl
State       Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port               Peer Address:Port
LISTEN      0      128              *:111                          *:*
LISTEN      0      5      192.168.122.1:53                           *:*
LISTEN      0      128              *:22                           *:*
LISTEN      0      100      127.0.0.1:25                           *:*
LISTEN      0      128      127.0.0.1:6080                         *:*
LISTEN      0      128      127.0.0.1:8000                         *:*
LISTEN      0      128             :::111                         :::*
LISTEN      0      128             :::22                          :::*
LISTEN      0      100            ::1:25                          :::*
LISTEN      0      128            ::1:6080                        :::*
LISTEN      0      128            ::1:8000                        :::* 




//配置nginx
[root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
user nginx;
worker_processes auto;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
pid /run/nginx.pid;

include /usr/share/nginx/modules/*.conf;

events {
    worker_connections 1024;
}

http {
    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

    access_log  /var/log/nginx/access.log  main;

    sendfile            on;
    tcp_nopush          on;
    tcp_nodelay         on;
    keepalive_timeout   65;
    types_hash_max_size 2048;

    include             /etc/nginx/mime.types;
    default_type        application/octet-stream;

    include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;

    server {
        listen       80;
        server_name  localhost;

        include /etc/nginx/default.d/*.conf;

        location / {
            root html;
            index index.html index.htm;
        }

        error_page 404 /404.html;
            location = /40x.html {
        }

        error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
            location = /50x.html {
        }
    }
}


[root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/nginx/conf.d/webvirtmgr.conf
server {
    listen 80 default_server;

    server_name $hostname;
    #access_log /var/log/nginx/webvirtmgr_access_log;

    location /static/ {
        root /var/www/webvirtmgr/webvirtmgr;
        expires max;
    }

    location / {
        proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8000;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-for $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_set_header Host $host:$server_port;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Proto $remote_addr;
        proxy_connect_timeout 600;
        proxy_read_timeout 600;
        proxy_send_timeout 600;
        client_max_body_size 1024M;
    }
}

//确保bind绑定的是本机的8000端口
[root@kvm ~]# vim /var/www/webvirtmgr/conf/gunicorn.conf.py
.....此处省略N行
bind = '0.0.0.0:8000'     //确保此处绑定的是本机的8000端口,这个在nginx配置中定义了,被代理的端口
backlog = 2048
.....此处省略N行

//重启nginx
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl restart nginx
[root@kvm ~]# ss -antl
State       Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port               Peer Address:Port
LISTEN      0      128              *:111                          *:*
LISTEN      0      128              *:80                           *:*
LISTEN      0      5      192.168.122.1:53                           *:*
LISTEN      0      128              *:22                           *:*
LISTEN      0      100      127.0.0.1:25                           *:*
LISTEN      0      128      127.0.0.1:6080                         *:*
LISTEN      0      128      127.0.0.1:8000                         *:*
LISTEN      0      128             :::111                         :::*
LISTEN      0      128             :::22                          :::*
LISTEN      0      100            ::1:25                          :::*
LISTEN      0      128            ::1:6080                        :::*
LISTEN      0      128            ::1:8000                        :::*



//设置supervisor
[root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/supervisord.conf
.....此处省略上面的内容,在文件最后加上以下内容
[program:webvirtmgr]
command=/usr/bin/python2 /var/www/webvirtmgr/manage.py run_gunicorn -c /var/www/webvirtmgr/conf/gunicorn.conf.py
directory=/var/www/webvirtmgr
autostart=true
autorestart=true
logfile=/var/log/supervisor/webvirtmgr.log
log_stderr=true
user=nginx

[program:webvirtmgr-console]
command=/usr/bin/python2 /var/www/webvirtmgr/console/webvirtmgr-console
directory=/var/www/webvirtmgr
autostart=true
autorestart=true
stdout_logfile=/var/log/supervisor/webvirtmgr-console.log
redirect_stderr=true
user=nginx



//启动supervisor并设置开机自启
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl start supervisord
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl enable supervisord
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/supervisord.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/supervisord.service.
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl status supervisord
● supervisord.service - Process Monitoring and Control Daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/supervisord.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Thu 2018-10-18 11:59:33 CST; 25s ago
 Main PID: 17918 (supervisord)
   CGroup: /system.slice/supervisord.service
           └─17918 /usr/bin/python /usr/bin/supervisord -c /etc/supervisord.conf

Oct 18 11:59:33 kvm systemd[1]: Starting Process Monitoring and Control Daemon...
Oct 18 11:59:33 kvm systemd[1]: Started Process Monitoring and Control Daemon.

[root@kvm webvirtmgr]# ss -antl
State       Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port               Peer Address:Port
LISTEN      0      128              *:111                          *:*
LISTEN      0      128              *:80                           *:*
LISTEN      0      5      192.168.122.1:53                           *:*
LISTEN      0      128              *:22                           *:*
LISTEN      0      100      127.0.0.1:25                           *:*
LISTEN      0      128              *:8000                         *:*
LISTEN      0      100              *:6080                         *:*
LISTEN      0      128             :::111                         :::*
LISTEN      0      128             :::22                          :::*
LISTEN      0      100            ::1:25                          :::*

//配置nginx用户
[root@kvm home]# su - nginx -s /bin/bash
-bash-4.2$ ssh-keygen -t rsa
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa):
Created directory '/var/lib/nginx/.ssh'.
Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):
Enter same passphrase again:
Your identification has been saved in /var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa.
Your public key has been saved in /var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
SHA256:rdbmW/YIXxAJBzPsd9q9eKHPjWtSZ5EQC5li3tkczYI nginx@localhost.localdomain
The key's randomart image is:
+---[RSA 2048]----+
|         .=o=.+  |
|         o.E.=.o |
|        o.o *.+ .|
|         o.o.+.o |
|        S ...+ ..|
|         o  ..o.+|
|        o + o.+oo|
|       . o =.*o+.|
|          o.oo*+.|
+----[SHA256]-----+

-bash-4.2$ touch ~/.ssh/config && echo -e "StrictHostKeyChecking=no\nUserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null" >> ~/.ssh/config
-bash-4.2$ chmod 0600 ~/.ssh/config

-bash-4.2$ ssh-copy-id root@192.168.160.109
/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: "/var/lib/nginx/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"
/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed
/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys
Warning: Permanently added '192.168.160.109' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
root@192.168.160.109's password:

Number of key(s) added: 1

Now try logging into the machine, with:   "ssh 'root@192.168.160.109'"
and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added.

-bash-4.2$ exit
logout

[root@kvm ~]# vim /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/50-libvirt-remote-access.pkla
[Remote libvirt SSH access]
Identity=unix-user:root
Action=org.libvirt.unix.manage
ResultAny=yes
ResultInactive=yes
ResultActive=yes

[root@kvm ~]# chown -R root.root /etc/polkit-1/localauthority/50-local.d/50-libvirt-remote-access.pkla
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl restart nginx
[root@kvm ~]# systemctl restart libvirtd

3.3 kvm web界面管理

通过ip地址在浏览器上访问kvm,例如我这里就是:http://192.168.160.109/login

3.3.1 kvm连接管理

创建SSH连接:


3.3.2 kvm存储管理

创建存储:

进入存储

通过远程连接软件上传ISO镜像文件至存储目录/var/lib/libvirt/images/

[root@kvm ~]# cd /var/lib/libvirt/images/
[root@kvm images]# ls
[root@kvm images]#

Upload SCP
CentOS-7-x86_64-DVD-1804.iso          (4263.00 MB, 8:45 min = 8.12 MB/sec)


[root@kvm images]# ls
CentOS-7-x86_64-DVD-1804.iso

在 web 界面查看ISO镜像是否存在

创建系统安装镜像

添加成功如下图所示

3.3.3 kvm网络管理

添加桥接网络


3.3.4 实例管理

实例(虚拟机)创建


虚拟机插入光盘

设置在 web 上访问虚拟机的密码

启动虚拟机

虚拟机安装

虚拟机安装步骤就是安装系统的步骤,此处就不再赘述

4.故障案例

4.1 案例1

web界面配置完成后可能会出现以下错误界面

解决方法是安装novnc并通过novnc_server启动一个vnc

[root@localhost ~]# ll /etc/rc.local
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 13 Aug  6  2018 /etc/rc.local -> rc.d/rc.local
[root@localhost ~]# ll /etc/rc.d/rc.local
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 513 Mar 11 22:35 /etc/rc.d/rc.local
[root@localhost ~]# chmod +x /etc/rc.d/rc.local
[root@localhost ~]# ll /etc/rc.d/rc.local
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 513 Mar 11 22:35 /etc/rc.d/rc.local

[root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/rc.d/rc.local
......此处省略N行
# that this script will be executed during boot.

touch /var/lock/subsys/local
nohup novnc_server 172.16.12.128:5920 &

[root@localhost ~]# . /etc/rc.d/rc.local

做完以上操作后再次访问即可正常访问

4.2 案例2

第一次通过web访问kvm时可能会一直访问不了,一直转圈,而命令行界面一直报错(too many open files)

此时需要对nginx进行配置

[root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
....此处省略N行
user nginx;
worker_processes auto;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
pid /run/nginx.pid;
worker_rlimit_nofile 655350;    //添加此行配置

# Load dynamic modules. See /usr/share/nginx/README.dynamic.
....此处省略N行

[root@localhost ~]# systemctl restart nginx

然后对系统参数进行设置

[root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/security/limits.conf
....此处省略N行
# End of file
* soft nofile 655350
* hard nofile 655350

到此问题即可解决

作业

写博客,将kvm的详细部署经过写成博客,部署过程中如遇到问题也要写进博客,并说明如何解决的