cobbler

1. cobbler简介

Cobbler是一个Linux服务器安装的服务,可以通过网络启动(PXE)的方式来快速安装、重装物理服务器和虚拟机,同时还可以管理DHCPDNS等。

Cobbler可以使用命令行方式管理,也提供了基于Web的界面管理工具(cobbler-web),还提供了API接口,可以方便二次开发使用。

Cobbler是较早前的kickstart的升级版,优点是比较容易配置,还自带web界面比较易于管理。

Cobbler内置了一个轻量级配置管理系统,但它也支持和其它配置管理系统集成,如Puppet,暂时不支持SaltStack。

Cobbler官网

cobbler集成的服务

  • PXE服务支持
  • DHCP服务管理
  • DNS服务管理(可选bind,dnsmasq)
  • 电源管理
  • Kickstart服务支持
  • YUM仓库管理
  • TFTP(PXE启动时需要)
  • Apache(提供kickstart的安装源,并提供定制化的kickstart配置)

cobbler配置文件详解
cobbler配置文件目录在/etc/cobbler

cobbler数据目录

cobbler日志文件

cobbler命令详解

cobbler check       //核对当前设置是否有问题
cobbler list        //列出所有的cobbler元素
cobbler report      //列出元素的详细信息
cobbler sync        //同步配置到数据目录,更改配置最好都要执行下
cobbler reposync    //同步yum仓库
cobbler distro      //查看导入的发行版系统信息
cobbler system      //查看添加的系统信息
cobbler profile     //查看配置信息

2. cobbler服务端部署

//配置yum源
[root@localhost ~]# curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
--2018-08-10 12:07:17--  http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
Resolving mirrors.163.com (mirrors.163.com)... 59.111.0.251
Connecting to mirrors.163.com (mirrors.163.com)|59.111.0.251|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 1572 (1.5K) [application/octet-stream]
Saving to: ‘CentOS7-Base-163.repo’

100%[=================================>] 1,572       --.-K/s   in 0s

2018-08-10 12:07:17 (191 MB/s) - ‘CentOS7-Base-163.repo’ saved [1572/1572]
[root@localhost ~]# sed -i 's/\$releasever/7/g' /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
[root@localhost ~]# sed -i 's/^enabled=.*/enabled=1/g' /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
[root@localhost ~]# yum -y install epel-release
安装过程略。。。。

//安装cobbler以及相关的软件
[root@localhost ~]# yum -y install httpd dhcp tftp python-ctypes cobbler  xinetd cobbler-web pykickstart
安装过程略....


//启动服务并设置开机自启
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl start httpd
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl start cobblerd
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl enable httpd
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/httpd.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/httpd.service.
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl enable cobblerd
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/cobblerd.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/cobblerd.service.


//修改server的ip地址为本机ip
[root@localhost ~]# sed -i 's/^server: 127.0.0.1/server: 172.16.12.128/' /etc/cobbler/settings

//设置tftp的ip地址为本机ip
[root@localhost ~]# sed -i 's/^next_server: 127.0.0.1/next_server: 172.16.12.128/' /etc/cobbler/settings

//开启tftp
[root@localhost ~]# sed -i '/disable/s/yes/no/g' /etc/xinetd.d/tftp

//下载缺失文件
[root@localhost ~]# cobbler get-loaders
task started: 2018-08-21_152811_get_loaders
task started (id=Download Bootloader Content, time=Tue Aug 21 15:28:11 2018)
downloading https://cobbler.github.io/loaders/README to /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/README
downloading https://cobbler.github.io/loaders/COPYING.elilo to /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/COPYING.elilo
downloading https://cobbler.github.io/loaders/COPYING.yaboot to /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/COPYING.yaboot
downloading https://cobbler.github.io/loaders/COPYING.syslinux to /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/COPYING.syslinux
downloading https://cobbler.github.io/loaders/elilo-3.8-ia64.efi to /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/elilo-ia64.efi
downloading https://cobbler.github.io/loaders/yaboot-1.3.17 to /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/yaboot
downloading https://cobbler.github.io/loaders/pxelinux.0-3.86 to /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/pxelinux.0
downloading https://cobbler.github.io/loaders/menu.c32-3.86 to /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/menu.c32
downloading https://cobbler.github.io/loaders/grub-0.97-x86.efi to /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/grub-x86.efi
downloading https://cobbler.github.io/loaders/grub-0.97-x86_64.efi to /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/grub-x86_64.efi
*** TASK COMPLETE ***

//启动rsync并设置开机自启
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl start rsyncd
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl enable rsyncd
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/rsyncd.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/rsyncd.service.

//生成加密的密码
[root@localhost ~]# openssl passwd -1 -salt "$RANDOM" 'wangqing123!'
$1$28958$sq1sJFDX0bZo.H8Q.8NLg0         //这是密码加密后的形式

//将新生成的加密密码加入到配置文件
[root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/cobbler/settings
....    //此处为省略内容
default_password_crypted: "$1$28958$sq1sJFDX0bZo.H8Q.8NLg0"
.....   //此处为省略内容

//重启cobbler
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl restart cobblerd
[root@localhost ~]# ss -antl
State       Recv-Q Send-Q      Local Address:Port                     Peer Address:Port
LISTEN      0      128                     *:22                                  *:*
LISTEN      0      100             127.0.0.1:25                                  *:*
LISTEN      0      5               127.0.0.1:25151                               *:*
LISTEN      0      5                       *:873                                 *:*
LISTEN      0      128                    :::80                                 :::*
LISTEN      0      128                    :::22                                 :::*
LISTEN      0      100                   ::1:25                                 :::*
LISTEN      0      128                    :::443                                :::*
LISTEN      0      5                      :::873                                :::*

//通过cobbler check 核对当前设置是否有问题
[root@localhost ~]# cobbler check
The following are potential configuration items that you may want to fix:

1 : debmirror package is not installed, it will be required to manage debian deployments and repositories
2 : fencing tools were not found, and are required to use the (optional) power management features. install cman or fence-agents to use them

Restart cobblerd and then run 'cobbler sync' to apply changes.
//以上两个是关于debian系统的错误,请忽略







//配置cobbler dhcp
//修改cobbler配置文件,让cobbler控制dhcp
[root@localhost ~]# sed -i '/^manage_dhcp/s/0/1/g' /etc/cobbler/settings
[root@localhost ~]# sed -n '/^manage_dhcp/p' /etc/cobbler/settings
manage_dhcp: 1

//配置dhcp
[root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/cobbler/dhcp.template
....    //此处为省略内容
subnet 172.16.12.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
     option routers             172.16.12.128;
     option domain-name-servers 172.16.12.2;        //此处为系统安装好后指定的dns地址
     option subnet-mask         255.255.255.0;
     range dynamic-bootp        172.16.12.100 172.16.12.250;
     default-lease-time         21600;
     max-lease-time             43200;
     next-server                $next_server; 
....    //此处为省略内容

//重启服务并同步配置,改完dhcp必须要sync同步配置
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl restart cobblerd
[root@localhost ~]# cobbler sync
task started: 2018-08-21_160420_sync
task started (id=Sync, time=Tue Aug 21 16:04:20 2018)
running pre-sync triggers
cleaning trees
removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/images
copying bootloaders
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/pxelinux.0 -> /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.0
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/menu.c32 -> /var/lib/tftpboot/menu.c32
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/yaboot -> /var/lib/tftpboot/yaboot
trying hardlink /usr/share/syslinux/memdisk -> /var/lib/tftpboot/memdisk
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/grub-x86.efi -> /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/grub-x86.efi
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/grub-x86_64.efi -> /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/grub-x86_64.efi
copying distros to tftpboot
copying images
generating PXE configuration files
generating PXE menu structure
rendering DHCP files
generating /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
rendering TFTPD files
generating /etc/xinetd.d/tftp
cleaning link caches
running post-sync triggers
running python triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/sync/post/*
running python trigger cobbler.modules.sync_post_restart_services
running: dhcpd -t -q
received on stdout:
received on stderr:
running: service dhcpd restart
received on stdout:
received on stderr: Redirecting to /bin/systemctl restart dhcpd.service

running shell triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/sync/post/*
running python triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/change/*
running python trigger cobbler.modules.scm_track
running shell triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/change/*
*** TASK COMPLETE ***

//检查dhcp是否正常
[root@localhost ~]# netstat -anulp|grep dhcp
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:67              0.0.0.0:*                           12692/dhcpd 








//导入redhat7镜像
[root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/cdrom /mnt
mount: /dev/sr0 is write-protected, mounting read-only
[root@localhost ~]# cobbler import --path=/mnt --name=rhel-7 --arch=x86_64
task started: 2018-08-21_162444_import
task started (id=Media import, time=Tue Aug 21 16:24:44 2018)
Found a candidate signature: breed=redhat, version=rhel6
Found a candidate signature: breed=redhat, version=rhel7
Found a matching signature: breed=redhat, version=rhel7
Adding distros from path /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/rhel-7-x86_64:
creating new distro: rhel-7-x86_64
trying symlink: /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/rhel-7-x86_64 -> /var/www/cobbler/links/rhel-7-x86_64
creating new profile: rhel-7-x86_64
associating repos
checking for rsync repo(s)
checking for rhn repo(s)
checking for yum repo(s)
starting descent into /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/rhel-7-x86_64 for rhel-7-x86_64
processing repo at : /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/rhel-7-x86_64     //导入镜像的位置
need to process repo/comps: /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/rhel-7-x86_64
looking for /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/rhel-7-x86_64/repodata/*comps*.xml
Keeping repodata as-is :/var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/rhel-7-x86_64/repodata
*** TASK COMPLETE ***

//说明:
    --path      //镜像路径
    --name      //为安装源定义一个名字
    --arch      //指定安装源平台

//安装源的唯一标示就是根据name参数来定义,本例导入成功后,安装源的唯一标示就是:CentOS-7-x86_64,如果重复,系统会提示导入失败


//查看cobbler镜像列表
[root@localhost ~]# cobbler list
distros:
   rhel-7-x86_64

profiles:
   rhel-7-x86_64

systems:

repos:

images:

mgmtclasses:

packages:

files:








//创建kickstarts自动安装脚本
[root@localhost ~]# cat > /var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/rhel-7-x86_64.ks <<'EOF'
auth --enableshadow --passalgo=sha512
bootloader --location=mbr
clearpart --all --initlabel
part /boot --asprimary --fstype="ext4" --size=500
part swap --fstype="swap" --size=4096
part / --fstype="ext4" --grow --size=15000
text
firewall --disabled
firstboot --disable
keyboard us
lang en_US
url --url=http://172.16.12.128/cobbler/ks_mirror/rhel-7-x86_64
$yum_repo_stanza
reboot

rootpw --iscrypted $6$2WTFvfNvAMgCUPuC$MJgWGzhakgxrRObcEbAwSe8vkz0s//xyiTllGwxRsHHruQhcskO69u2LVTU9u0eemHXH2pzcGawyAJ54R2E/x0

selinux --disabled
skipx
timezone Asia/Shanghai --isUtc --nontp
install
zerombr

%packages
@^minimal
@core
kexec-tools

%end

%addon com_redhat_kdump --enable --reserve-mb='auto'

%end

%anaconda
pwpolicy root --minlen=6 --minquality=1 --notstrict --nochanges --notempty
pwpolicy user --minlen=6 --minquality=1 --notstrict --nochanges --emptyok
pwpolicy luks --minlen=6 --minquality=1 --notstrict --nochanges --notempty
%end
EOF

//检查ks文件语法是否有误
[root@localhost ~]# cobbler validateks
task started: 2018-08-21_171616_validateks
task started (id=Kickstart Validation, time=Tue Aug 21 17:16:16 2018)
----------------------------
osversion: rhel7
checking url: http://172.16.12.128/cblr/svc/op/ks/profile/rhel-7-x86_64
running: /usr/bin/ksvalidator -v "rhel7" "http://172.16.12.128/cblr/svc/op/ks/profile/rhel-7-x86_64"
received on stdout:
received on stderr:
*** all kickstarts seem to be ok ***
*** TASK COMPLETE ***

//查看当前cobbler有哪些配置文件
[root@localhost ~]# cobbler profile list
   Centos-7-x86_64
   
//修改profile,将我们新建的ks文件设为默认的kickstarts安装文件
[root@localhost ~]# cobbler profile edit --name rhel-7-x86_64 --kickstart=/var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/rhel-7-x86_64.ks

//配置网卡名称为传统网卡名称eth0
[root@localhost ~]# cobbler profile edit --name rhel-7-x86_64 --kopts='net.ifnames=0 biosdevname=0'


//检查当前系统cobbler配置文件信息
[root@localhost ~]# cobbler profile report
Name                           : rhel-7-x86_64
TFTP Boot Files                : {}
Comment                        :
DHCP Tag                       : default
Distribution                   : rhel-7-x86_64        //仓库名字
Enable gPXE?                   : 0
Enable PXE Menu?               : 1
Fetchable Files                : {}
Kernel Options                 : {'biosdevname': '0', 'net.ifnames': '0'}       //网卡设为传统命名方式
Kernel Options (Post Install)  : {}
Kickstart                      : /var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/rhel-7-x86_64.ks     //使用的kickstarts配置文件的路径,必须为我们新建的ks文件的路径
Kickstart Metadata             : {}
Management Classes             : []
Management Parameters          : <<inherit>>
Name Servers                   : []
Name Servers Search Path       : []
Owners                         : ['admin']
Parent Profile                 :
Internal proxy                 :
Red Hat Management Key         : <<inherit>>
Red Hat Management Server      : <<inherit>>
Repos                          : []
Server Override                : <<inherit>>
Template Files                 : {}
Virt Auto Boot                 : 1
Virt Bridge                    : xenbr0
Virt CPUs                      : 1
Virt Disk Driver Type          : raw
Virt File Size(GB)             : 5
Virt Path                      :
Virt RAM (MB)                  : 512
Virt Type                      : kvm


//同步cobbler
[root@localhost ~]# cobbler sync
task started: 2018-08-21_172909_sync
task started (id=Sync, time=Tue Aug 21 17:29:09 2018)
running pre-sync triggers
cleaning trees
removing: /var/www/cobbler/images/rhel-7-x86_64
removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default
removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/images
removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/grub-x86.efi
removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/grub-x86_64.efi
removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/efidefault
removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/images/rhel-7-x86_64
removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/s390x/profile_list
copying bootloaders
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/grub-x86.efi -> /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/grub-x86.efi
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/grub-x86_64.efi -> /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/grub-x86_64.efi
copying distros to tftpboot
copying files for distro: rhel-7-x86_64
trying hardlink /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/rhel-7-x86_64/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz -> /var/lib/tftpboot/images/rhel-7-x86_64/vmlinuz
trying hardlink /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/rhel-7-x86_64/images/pxeboot/initrd.img -> /var/lib/tftpboot/images/rhel-7-x86_64/initrd.img
copying images
generating PXE configuration files
generating PXE menu structure
copying files for distro: rhel-7-x86_64
trying hardlink /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/rhel-7-x86_64/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz -> /var/www/cobbler/images/rhel-7-x86_64/vmlinuz
trying hardlink /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/rhel-7-x86_64/images/pxeboot/initrd.img -> /var/www/cobbler/images/rhel-7-x86_64/initrd.img
Writing template files for rhel-7-x86_64
rendering DHCP files
generating /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
rendering TFTPD files
generating /etc/xinetd.d/tftp
processing boot_files for distro: rhel-7-x86_64
cleaning link caches
running post-sync triggers
running python triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/sync/post/*
running python trigger cobbler.modules.sync_post_restart_services
running: dhcpd -t -q
received on stdout:
received on stderr:
running: service dhcpd restart
received on stdout:
received on stderr: Redirecting to /bin/systemctl restart dhcpd.service

running shell triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/sync/post/*
running python triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/change/*
running python trigger cobbler.modules.scm_track
running shell triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/change/*
*** TASK COMPLETE ***


//为避免发生未知问题,先把服务端所有服务重启
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl restart xinetd
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl restart cobblerd
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl restart httpd
[root@localhost ~]# ss -antl
State      Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address:Port               Peer Address:Port
LISTEN     0      128            *:22                         *:*
LISTEN     0      100    127.0.0.1:25                         *:*
LISTEN     0      5      127.0.0.1:25151                      *:*
LISTEN     0      5              *:873                        *:*
LISTEN     0      128           :::80                        :::*
LISTEN     0      128           :::22                        :::*
LISTEN     0      100          ::1:25                        :::*
LISTEN     0      128           :::443                       :::*
LISTEN     0      5             :::873                       :::*

3. 客户端安装

新建虚拟机从pxe启动,若出现以下界面则表示成功:

4. 定制安装

定制安装步骤:

  • 统计服务器mac地址
  • 配置cobbler
  • 安装 统计mac地址此处就不赘述了,直接最重要的配置 在 cobbler 的web界面上配置:

同步配置并重启相关服务:

[root@localhost ~]# cobbler sync
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl restart httpd
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl restart cobblerd
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl restart xinetd

最后开机自动会安装系统

作业

1.写博客
2.写一个服务端部署脚本